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Does Leading The Global Lithium Battery Market Mean That China Has Mastered The Core Technology (1)

Ma ke kakahiaka o ʻApelila 21, 2014, ua kīloi ʻia ka musk ma Beijing Qiaofu Fangcao e kahi mokulele pilikino a ua hele aku i ke Kuhina ʻEpekema a me ʻenehana o Kina no kahi kū mua e ʻimi ai i ka wā e hiki mai ana no ke komo ʻana o Tesla i Kina. ʻO ka Kuhina ʻepekema a me nā ʻenehana ke hoʻoikaika mau nei iā Tesla, akā ʻo kēia manawa musk pani ʻo ia i ka puka a pane aʻe: Ke noʻonoʻo nei ʻo Kina i ka hoʻoponopono ʻauhau o nā kaʻa uila. Ma mua o ka pau ʻana o ka hoʻoponopono, pono e uku ʻia ke ʻano hoʻohālikelike 25% e like me nā kaʻa wahie kuʻuna.

No laila hoʻolālā ʻo musk e "ʻoliʻoli" ma o ka piko o nā geek Park. Ma ke keʻena nui o Zhongshan hale ʻahamele, ʻo Yang Yuanqing, Zhou Hongyi, Zhang Yiming a me nā mea ʻē aʻe e noho ana ma ke kahua. A kali ʻo musk ma hope o ke kahua, lawe i waho i kāna kelepona paʻalima a tweets. Ke kani ke mele, hele wāwae ʻo ia i ke kahua, hauʻoli a me ka paʻipaʻi. Akā i kona wā i hoʻi mai ai i ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, ua tweet ʻo ia a hoʻopiʻi ʻo ia: "ma Kina, ua like mākou me kahi pēpē kolo."

Mai ia manawa, aia ʻo Tesla ma ka lihi o ka panakalupa no nā manawa he nui ma ke ʻano he bearish maʻamau a ʻo ka pilikia distocia i alakaʻi ʻia i ka hapalua makahiki ka lōʻihi o ka hōʻiliʻili ʻana o nā mea kūʻai aku. A ʻo kahi hopena, hāʻule ka musk a puhi puhi ʻo ia i ka pakalōlō, e hiamoe ana i kahi hale hana ʻo Kaleponi i kēlā me kēia lā e nānā i ka holomua. ʻO ke ala ʻoi loa e hoʻonā i ka pilikia o ka hiki ke kūkulu i nā hale hana ʻoi loa ma Kina. I kēia hopena, uē ʻo musk i kāna haʻi ʻōlelo ma Hong Kong: no nā mea kūʻai aku Kina, ua aʻo ʻo ia e hoʻohana i ka wechat.

 

Holo ka manawa. Ma Ianuali 7, 2020, ua hele hou ka musk i Shanghai a hāʻawi i ka pūʻulu mua o ke ʻano hoʻohālikelike home 3 i nā ʻona kaʻa Kina ma ka hale hana ʻo Tesla Shanghai Super. ʻO kāna mau ʻōlelo mua: Mahalo i ke aupuni Kina. He hulahula hoʻi kāna ma hope. Mai ia manawa, me ka hōʻemi nui ʻana o ke kumu kūʻai 3 o ka home 3, ua ʻōlelo ka poʻe he nui i loko a ma waho o ka ʻoihana i ka weliweli: e hiki mai ana ka hopena o nā kaʻa ikehu hou o Kina.

Eia nō naʻe, i ka makahiki i hala iho nei, ua ʻike ʻo Tesla i nā hanana rollover nunui, e like me ka puhi wale ʻana o ka pākika, ka ʻenekini i ka kaohi ʻole, lele aku ka skylight, a pēlā aku. A ua lilo ko Tesla ʻano i "kūpono" a haʻaheo paha. I kēia mau lā, no ka holo pono ʻole o nā kaʻa hou, ua hoʻohewa ʻia ʻo Tesla e ka pāpāho kikowaena. Ma ke kamaʻilio ʻana, maʻamau pinepine ka pilikia shrinkage Tesla, he mau kaʻa ʻona ma ka Pūnaewele e hōʻino i ka leo kekahi ma hope o kekahi.

I ka nānā ʻana i kēia, ua hana kūleʻa nā lālā o ka mokuʻāina. I kēia mau lā, ua nīnauele ʻia e ka General Administration o ka nānā ʻana o ka mākeke a me nā keʻena ʻelima i Tesla, kahi i pili nui i nā pilikia e like me ka holomua maʻamau, ke ahi uila, hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaʻa mamao, a pēlā aku. .

Pehea ka nui o ka pākahi lithium? Ke nānā nei i ka papa o ka hoʻomohala ʻoihana, ʻike maoli ʻo Kina i ka ʻenehana nui? Pehea e loaʻa ai ka kūleʻa?

 

1 / ʻO ka pono pono o nā manawa

 Does Leading The Global Lithium Battery Market Mean That China Has Mastered The Core Technology (2)

I ke kenekulia 20, ua hana ka poʻe kānaka i ka waiwai nui aʻe ma mua o ka huina o nā makahiki 2000 i hala. I waena o lākou, hiki ke ʻike ʻia ka ʻepekema a me ka ʻenehana he ikaika hoʻoholo i ka hāpai ʻana i ka nohona ākea a me ka hoʻomohala waiwai. I nā makahiki he haneli i hala aku nei, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o nā mea hou ʻepekema a me nā ʻenehana i hana ʻia e nā kānaka e like me nā hōkū, a ʻelua o lākou i ʻike ʻia he mana nui loa i ka hana mōʻaukala. ʻO ka transistors ka mea mua, me ka ʻole o laila ʻaʻohe kamepiula; ʻo ka lua, ʻo ia nā paila lithium-ion, me ka ʻole o hiki ʻole ke noʻonoʻo ʻia ka honua。

I kēia lā, ua hoʻohana ʻia nā pila uila lithium i nā piliona o nā kelepona paʻalima, nā kamepiula lawe uila a me nā huahana uila ʻē aʻe i kēlā me kēia makahiki, a me nā miliona o nā kaʻa ikehu hou, a me nā mīkini lawe lima a pau ma ka honua e pono ai ka hoʻouka. Eia hou, me ka hōʻea ʻana mai o ka hoʻokahuli kaʻa kaʻa uila hou a me ka hana ʻana i nā mea kelepona hou aku, e loaʻa i ka ʻoihana lithium pākahi kahi wā e hiki mai ana. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo ka waiwai puka makahiki o nā huna uila lithium wale nō i hiki aku i 200 biliona yuan, a ʻo ka wā e hiki mai ana ma kahi o ke kihi wale nō.

ʻO nā hoʻolālā a me nā hoʻolālā no ka wā e hiki mai ana ka hoʻopau ʻana o nā kaʻa wahie i hoʻokumu ʻia e nā ʻāina like ʻole i ka honua e "ʻokiʻoki ana hoʻi i ka keke". ʻO Norewaka ka mea mua loa ma 2025, a ʻo ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Iāpana a me nā ʻāina he nui o ʻEulopa ma kahi o 2035. ʻAʻohe papa manawa maopopo o Kina. Inā ʻaʻohe ʻenehana hou i ka wā e hiki mai ana, e ulu mau ana ka ʻoihana pākahi lithium i mau makahiki. Hiki ke ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo ka mea nona ka ʻenehana nui o ka pākahi lithium ʻo ia hoʻi ka loaʻa ʻana o ke koʻokoʻo aliʻi i luna o ka ʻoihana.

 

 Hoʻonohonoho nā ʻāina ʻEulopa Komohana i kahi manawa no ka haʻalele ʻana i nā kaʻa wahie 

I loko o nā makahiki, ʻEulopa a me ʻAmelike Hui Pū ʻIa, Kina, Iapana a me Kōlea Hema ua hoʻouka i ka hoʻokūkū huhū a me ka hakakā ʻana i ke kahua o nā paila lithium, e pili ana i nā ʻepekema kaulana he nui, nā kula nui a me nā keʻena noiʻi, a me nā pilikua a me ka consortia kapikala ma ʻaila ʻaila, kemika, kaʻa, ʻepekema a me nā ʻenehana ʻenehana. ʻO wai ka mea e manaʻo ʻo ke ala hoʻomohala o ka ʻoihana lithium batter global e like ia me ka semiconductor: ma ʻEulopa a me ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa i ʻoi aku ka ikaika ma mua o Iapana a me Kōlea Hema, a lilo ka mana iā Kina.

I nā makahiki 1970 a me 1980, ua loaʻa ka ʻenehana lithium o ka pākahi ma Europe a me ʻAmelika. Ma hope, ua hana kūleʻa nā ʻAmelika i ka lithium cobalt oxide, nā lithium manganese oxide a me nā lithium iron phosphate batteries, i alakaʻi i ka ʻoihana. I ka 1991, ʻo Iapana ka mea mua e hana i nā pākahi lithium-ion, akā ua hoʻomau ka emi ʻana o ka mākeke. ʻO Kōlea Hema, ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, hilinaʻi i ka mokuʻāina e hoʻokuke iā ia i mua. I ka manawa like, me ke kākoʻo ikaika o ke aupuni, ua hana ʻo Kina i ka ʻoihana pākahi lithium ka mua ma ka honua i kēlā me kēia ʻanuʻu.

I ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka ʻoihana pākahi lithium, ua hana nui ʻo ʻEulopa, ʻAmelika a me Iapana i ka paepae nui i ka ʻenehana. I ka makahiki 2019, ua hāʻawi ʻia ka makana Nobel ma ke kemika i nā ʻepekema ʻAmelika ʻo John goodinaf, Stanley whitingham a me ka ʻepekema Kepanī ʻo Yoshino i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i kā lākou mau kōkua i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā paila lithium-ion. ʻOiai ua lanakila ka ʻepekema mai ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa a me Iapana i ka Nobel Prize, hiki iā Kina ke alakaʻi i ka ʻenehana ʻenehana o nā paila lithium?

 

2 / Ke moe o ka pakuhi lithium 

ʻO ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka ʻenehana lithium pākahi honua kahi ala lōʻihi e ukali ai. I nā makahiki mua 1970, i ka pane ʻana i ka pilikia o ka aila, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo Exxon i kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua noiʻi ma New Jersey, e ʻumeʻume ana i kahi helu nui o nā kālena kiʻekiʻe i ka physics a me ke kelekema, e like me Stanley whitingham, kahi hoa postdoctoral i electrochemistry paʻa paʻa mokuʻāina ma Stanford University. ʻO kāna pahuhopu ka hana hou ʻana i kahi hopena ikehu hou, ʻo ia hoʻi, e hoʻomohala i kahi hanauna hou o nā pākuhi hou.

I ka manawa like, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻo Bell Labs i kahi kime o nā chemist a me nā physicists mai ke Kulanui ʻo Stanford. Ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua i kahi hoʻokūkū ikaika loa i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā paila o ka hanauna hou. ʻOiai pili ka noiʻi, "ʻaʻole pilikia ke kālā.". Ma hope o ʻelima mau makahiki o ka noiʻi pilikino pilikino, ua hoʻomohala mua ʻo whitingham a me kāna hui i ka pākahi lithium-ion rechargeable mua loa o ka honua.

Hoʻohana hoʻohana kēia lithium pūnaewele i ka titanium sulfide ma ke ʻano he mea cathode a me ka lithium ma ke ʻano he anode. Loaʻa iā ia nā pōmaikaʻi o ke kaupaona māmā, ka nui a ʻaʻohe hopena hoʻomanaʻo. I ka manawa like, hoʻolei ia i nā hemahema o ka pakuhi mua, i hiki ke ʻōlelo ʻia he lele maikaʻi. I ka makahiki 1976, ua noi ʻo Exxon no ka palapala hoʻoiho lithium pākahi mua o ka honua, akā ʻaʻole i pōmaikaʻi ʻia mai ka hana ʻana. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole pili kēia i ka inoa o whitingham ma ke ʻano he “makuakāne o lithium” a me kona kūlana i ka honua.

ʻOiai ʻo ka hana hou ʻana a whitingham i hōʻeuʻeu i ka ʻoihana, ʻo ka pākiko e hoʻokau nei i ka puhi ʻana a me ka wāwahi ʻana i loko i mea hoʻonāukiuki loa i ka kime, e like me gudinaf. No laila, hoʻomau ʻo ia a me ʻelua mau mea kōkua postdoctoral e mākaʻikaʻi i ka papa manawa kau. Ma 1980, ua hoʻoholo hope loa lākou ʻo ka cobalt ka mea ʻoi loa. ʻO ka lithium cobalt oxide, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e like me ke cathode o nā paila lithium-ion, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi ma mua o nā mea ʻē aʻe i kēlā manawa a noho koke i ka mākeke.

Mai ia manawa, ua hana i mua ka ʻenehana o ka puʻuwai kanaka i kahi holomua nui. He aha ka mea e hana me ka ʻole o ka lithium cobaltite? I ka pōkole, no ke aha ka nui a me ke kaumaha o ke "kelepona paʻalima nui"? No ka mea ʻaʻohe pākahi lithium cobalt. Eia nō naʻe, ʻoiai he nui nā pōmaikaʻi o ka pākana lithium cobalt oxide, hōʻike ʻia kāna mau mea maikaʻi ʻole ma hope o ka noi nui ʻana, e like me ke kumu kūʻai kiʻekiʻe, kūpaʻa keu a me ka hana pōʻaiapuni.

No laila ua hoʻomau ʻo goodinav a me kāna haumāna ʻo Mike Thackeray e ʻimi no nā mea ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi. I ka makahiki 1982, ua hana ʻo Thackeray i kahi paila lithium manganate paionia. Akā ʻaʻole i liʻuliʻu, ua lele ʻo ia i Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) e hoʻopaʻa i nā pākahi lithium. A hoʻomau ʻo goodinaf a me kāna hui e ʻimi no nā mea ʻē aʻe, e hoʻemi ana i ka papa inoa i kahi hui o ka hao a me ka phosphor e ka hoʻololi hou ʻana i nā metala i ka papa manawa.

I ka hopena, ʻaʻole i hana ka hao a me ka phosphore i ka hoʻonohonoho e makemake ai ka hui, akā ua hana lākou i kahi ʻano ʻē aʻe: ma hope o licoo3 a me LiMn2O4, ua hānau ʻia ke kolu o nā mea cathode no nā paila lithium-ion: LiFePO4. No laila, ʻo nā mea nui ʻekolu lithium-ion bateri maikaʻi i hānau ʻia i loko o ka hale hanaʻo dinaf mai ka wā kahiko. Ua lilo pū ia i wahi moe o nā paila lithium i ka honua, me ka hānau ʻana o nā mea kemiko Nobel Prize ʻelua i ʻōlelo ʻia ma luna.

I ka makahiki 1996, ua noi ke Kulanui o Texas i kahi palapala Sila Nui no ka keʻena hoʻokolohua a goodinaf. ʻO kēia ka patent kumu mua o ka pūnaewele LiFePO4. Mai ia manawa, ua hui pū ʻo Michelle Armand, he ʻepekema lithium Palani, i ka hui a noi me dinaf no ka palapala Sila Nui o LiFePO4 kalapona ʻenehana hoʻopunipuni, a lilo i ʻelua palapala kumu nui o LiFePO4. ʻO kēia mau palapala kuhikuhi ʻelua nā mea nui i hiki ʻole ke kāpae ʻia i kēlā me kēia hihia.

 

3 / Hoʻololi ʻenehana

Me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka noi ʻenehana, aia kahi pilikia koʻikoʻi e hoʻonā ʻia i ka electrode maikaʻi ʻole o ka lithium cobalt oxide bateri, no laila ʻaʻole i hana wikiwiki ʻia. I kēlā manawa, hoʻohana ʻia ka metala lithium ma ke ʻano he anode o nā paila lithium. ʻOiai hiki iā ia ke hāʻawi i ka nui o ka ikehu kiʻekiʻe, nui nā pilikia, me ka paukū mālie o nā anode a me ka nalo ʻana o ka hana, a ʻo ka ulu ʻana o nā lithium dendrites hiki ke ʻoki i ka diaphragm, e hopena ana i ke kaapuni pōkole a i ʻole ka puhi ʻana a me ka pahū ʻana o ka pākahiko.

I ka wā o ka pilikia loa, ua kū mai ka Kepani. Ke hoʻomohala nei ʻo Sony i nā pila lithium no kahi manawa lōʻihi, a ua nānā pono i nā hanana honua. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻohe ʻike e pili ana i ka manawa a me kahi i loaʻa ai ka ʻenehana lithium cobaltite. I ka makahiki 1991, ua hoʻokuʻu ʻo Sony i ka pākahi lithium-ion kalepa mua i ka mōʻaukala kanaka, a kau i nā paila lithium cobalt oxide cylindrical i ka pahupaʻi uila ccd-tr1 hou loa. Mai ia manawa, ua kākau hou ʻia ka maka o ka uila uila o ka honua. 

Na Yoshino i hoʻoholo i kēia hoʻoholo koʻikoʻi. Ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e hoʻohana i ke kalapona (graphite) ma kahi o ka lithium ma ke ʻano he anode o ka pakuhi lithium, a hui pū ʻia me ka lithium cobalt oxide cathode. Hoʻomaikaʻi kēia kumu i ka hiki a me ke ola pōʻaiapuni o ka puʻuwai lithium, a hoʻemi i ke kumukūʻai, ʻo ia ka ikaika hope loa no ka hana ʻana i ka pakuhi lithium. Mai ia manawa, ua ninini nā ʻoihana Kina a me Korea i ka nalu o ka ʻoihana pākahi lithium, a ua hoʻokumu ʻia ka ʻenehana ikehu (ATL) i kēia manawa.

Ma muli o kaʻaihue ʻenehana, ʻo ka "alliance rights" i hoʻokumu ʻia e ke Kulanui o Texas a me kekahi mau ʻoihana e lawelawe nei i nā pahi kaua ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa, a ua hopena i ka hakakā patent e pili ana i nā ʻāina a me nā hui he nui. ʻOiai e noʻonoʻo mau ana ka poʻe ʻo LiFePO4 ka paila mana kūpono loa, kahi ʻōnaehana mea cathode hou e hui pū ana i nā pono o ka lithium niobate, ka lithium cobalt a me ka lithium manganese i hānau malū ʻia i kahi keʻena hoʻokolohua ma Kanada.

I ʻApelila 2001, ʻo Jeff Dann, Kumu o ka physics ma ke Kulanui o dalhous a me ka ʻepekema poʻokela o ka hui 3M ʻo Kanada, i haku i kahi mea nui ʻoihana nickel cobalt manganese ternary composite cathode material, nāna i hāpai i ka pākahi lithium e haki i ke kaʻina hope loa o ke komo ʻana i ka mākeke. . Ma ʻApelila 27 o kēlā makahiki, ua noi ʻo 3M i ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa no ka palapala Sila Nui, ʻo ia ka mea nui o ka pono nui o nā mea ternary. ʻO ke kumu o kēia inā aia nō i ka ʻōnaehana ternary, ʻaʻole hiki i kekahi ke hele a puni.

ʻAneʻane i ka manawa like, ua noi mua ʻo Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) i ka manaʻo o ka lithium waiwai, a ma kēia kumu, ua hoʻokumu i nā mea lithium papa ʻia a me nā mea kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe manganese ternary, a ua noi maikaʻi ʻia no kahi palapala Sila Nui i ka makahiki 2004. A ʻo ka mea nāna i mālama ʻO thackerel kēia hoʻolālā ʻenehana, nāna i hana i ka lithium manganate. A hiki i ka 2012, ua hoʻomaka ʻo Tesla e wāwahi i ka ikaika o ka piʻi mālie. Ua hāʻawi ʻo Musk i mau manawa o ka uku kiʻekiʻe e hōʻuluʻulu i ka poʻe mai ka mahele ʻo R & D pākahi lithium o 3M.

Lawe i kēia manawa kūpono, 3M kaomi i ka moku ma ke au o kēia manawa, lawe i ka hoʻolālā o "hele nā ​​kānaka, akā noho mau nā pono o ka patent", hoʻopau loa i ka ʻoihana o nā pila, a loaʻa nā loaʻa kiʻekiʻe ma o ka lawe ʻana i nā patent a me ka hana ʻenehana. Ua hāʻawi ʻia nā palapala hoʻoilina i kekahi mau ʻoihana pāhana lithium Kepani a me Korea e like me Elektron, Panasonic, Hitachi, Samsung, LG, L & F a me SK, a me nā mea cathode e like me Shanshan, Hunan Ruixiang a me Beida Xianxian ma Kina Aia kekahi ʻoi aku i nā ʻoihana he ʻumi i ka huina.

Hāʻawi wale ʻia nā patent o Anl i ʻekolu mau hui: BASF, kahi pilikua Kelemania nunui, nā ʻoihana Toyoda, kahi hale hana cathode Kepani, a me LG, kahi hui Kōlea Hema. Ma hope mai, e pili ana i ka hoʻokūkū hoʻokūkū nui o nā mea ternary, ua hoʻokumu ʻia ʻelua mau noiʻi noiʻi ʻoihana ʻoihana kiʻekiʻe. Ua hoʻohālikelike kēia i ka ikaika ʻenehana "innate" o nā ʻoihana pākahi lithium i ke komohana, Iapana a me Kōlea Hema, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i loaʻa nui iā Kina.

 

4 / Ke ala ʻana o nā ʻoihana Kina

ʻOiai ʻaʻole i kāina ʻo Kina i ka ʻenehana nui, pehea ia i haki ai i kēia kūlana? ʻAʻole i lohi loa ka noiʻi ʻana o ka pakuhi lithium o Kina, ʻaneʻane hoʻopili ʻia me ka honua. I ka hala ʻana o nā makahiki 1970, ma lalo o ka ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo a Chen Liquan, he kālaiʻike o ka Chinese Academy of Engineering ma Kelemania, ua hoʻokumu ka Institute of physics o ka Chinese Academy of Science i ka hale hōʻikeʻike paʻa paʻa mokuʻāina mua loa ma Kina, a hoʻomaka i ka noiʻi ʻana ma ka lithium- nā alakaʻi ion a me nā paila lithium. I ka makahiki 1995, ua hānau ʻia kā kā līlī līkī mua o Kina i ka Institute of physics, Chinese Academy of Science.

I ka manawa like, mahalo i ka piʻi ʻana o nā uila uila o nā mea kūʻai mai i nā makahiki 1990, ua ala like nā pākahi lithium o Kina i ka manawa like, a me ka puka ʻana o "ʻehā mau pilikua", ʻo Lishen, BYD, bick a me ATL. ʻOiai ʻo Iapana i alakaʻi i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka ʻoihana, ma muli o ka pilikia ola, ua kūʻai aku ʻo Sanyo Electric iā Panasonic, a ua kūʻai aku ʻo Sony i kāna ʻoihana pākahi lithium i ka hana Murata. I ka hoʻokūkū ikaika i ka mākeke, ʻo BYD a me ATL wale nō ka "ʻehā nui" ma Kina.

I ka makahiki 2011, ua kāohi ke aupuni "Kina" papa inoa keʻokeʻo "i nā ʻoihana kālā kālā haole. Ma hope o ka loaʻa ʻia e ke kapena Kepani, ua lilo ka ʻike o ATL i lā ʻole. No laila ʻo Zeng Yuqun, ka mea hoʻokumu o ATL, i hoʻolālā e hana kūʻokoʻa i ka ʻoihana pila uila, e ʻae i ke kapikala Kina e komo i loko, a palupalu i nā ʻāpana o ka hui makua TDK, akā ʻaʻole i ʻae ʻia. No laila ua hoʻokumu ʻo Zeng Yuqun i ke au Ningde (catl), a ua holomua i ka hōʻiliʻili ʻenehana mua, a lilo i lio ʻeleʻele.

Ma ke ʻano o ke ala ʻenehana, koho ʻo BYD i ka pakuhi uila lithium hao phosphate palekana a he kumu kūʻai hoʻi, ʻokoʻa ia mai ka pākiki lithium ternary kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o ka ikehu i ka wā Ningde. Pili kēia i ke ana ʻoihana o BYD. ʻO Wang Chuanfu, ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i ka ʻoihana, kākoʻo i ka "ʻai ʻana i kahi kō i ka hopena". Ma waho o ke aniani a me nā pākū, kokoke i nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe a pau o kahi kaʻa e hana a kūʻai ʻia e ia iho, a laila hoʻokūkū me ka honua waho me kahi kumu kūʻai kumu kūʻai. Ma muli o kēia, paʻa paʻa ʻo BYD i ka lua o ka wahi ma ka mākeke kūloko no kahi manawa lōʻihi.

Akā ʻo ko BYD maikaʻi ʻo ia hoʻi kona nāwaliwali: hana ia i nā bateri a kūʻai aku i nā kaʻa, kahi e hilinaʻi ʻole ai nā mea hana kaʻa ʻē aʻe a makemake e hāʻawi i nā kauoha i nā mea hoʻokūkū ma mua o lākou iho. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻo Tesla, ʻoiai ʻo BYD's LiFePO4 ʻenehana uila i hōʻiliʻili nui aʻe, koho nō naʻe i ka ʻenehana like o Ningde era. I mea e hoʻololi ai i ke kūlana, hoʻolālā ʻo BYD e hoʻokaʻawale i ka pakuhi uila a hoʻouka i ka "pākahi pahi".

Mai ka hoʻoponopono a me ka wehe ʻana, ʻo ka pākahi lithium kekahi o nā māla liʻiliʻi e hiki ke hopu i nā ʻāina kūkulu. Penei nā kumu: ʻo ka mua, pili ka mokuʻāina i ka mea nui i ka pale ʻana i ka hoʻolālā; ʻo ka lua, ʻaʻole lohi ia i ka hoʻomaka ʻana; ʻo ke kolu, ua lawa ka mākeke kūloko; ʻo ka hā, he hui o nā ʻenehana loea e makemake ana e hana pū e haki. Akā inā mākou e hoʻokokoke, e like me ka inoa o ke au Ningde, ʻo ia nā hana hoʻokele waiwai a Kina a me ke au o nā kaʻa uila e hoʻohālikelike i ka wā Ningde.

I kēia mau lā, ʻaʻole i lohi ʻo Kina ma hope o nā ʻāina kūkulu i ka noiʻi o nā anode a me nā electrolytes, akā aia nō kekahi mau hemahema, e like me ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o ka pākahi lithium, ka nui o ka ikehu a pēlā aku. ʻIke nō, loaʻa i kahi ʻenehana hōʻiliʻili o ke komohana, Iapana a me Kōlea Hema kekahi mau mea maikaʻi. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻoiai ʻo Ningde mau manawa i koho mua ʻia i ka mākeke pākahi honua no kekahi mau makahiki, nā papa noiʻi noiʻi kūloko a me nā ʻāina ʻē e helu mau nei iā Panasonic a me LG i ka pae mua, ʻoiai ʻo Ningde mau manawa a me BYD i ka pae ʻelua.

 

5 / Panina Manaʻo
 

Me ke kanalua ʻole, me ka hoʻomohala hou ʻia ʻana o ka noiʻi e pili ana i ka wā e hiki mai ana, ʻo ka hoʻomohala ʻana a me ka hoʻohana ʻana o nā pākahi lithium i ka honua e lawe i kahi mana ākea ākea, kahi e hāpai ai i ka hana hou o ka ikehu a me ka hana hou o ka nohona kanaka, a hoʻokomo i ka ikaika hou i ka ulu hoʻomau o ka hoʻokele waiwai a me ke kaiāulu a me ka hoʻoikaika ʻana i ka pale o ke kaiapuni. Ma ke ʻano he ʻoihana alakaʻi nui i ka ʻoihana, ua like ʻo Tesla me kahi pōpoki. ʻOiai e hoʻonāukiuki ana i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā kaʻa ikehu hou, ke alakaʻi nei nō i ka hoʻokūkū ʻana i ke kaiapuni pākeke lithium

Ua hōʻike ʻo Zeng Yuqun i ka moʻolelo o loko o kāna kuʻikahi me Tesla: e kamaʻilio ana ʻo musk e pili ana i ke kumukūʻai i ka lā holoʻokoʻa. ʻO ke kumu o ka Tesla e hoʻokau nei i ka uku o nā paila. Eia nō naʻe, pono e hoʻomaopopo ʻia i ke kaʻina o ka holo wikiwiki o Tesla a me Ningde i ka mākeke Kina, ʻaʻole pono e nānā ka kaʻa a me ka pila i ka pilikia maikaʻi ma muli o ke kumukūʻai. I ka manawa hoʻokahi, e hoʻoliʻiliʻi nui ʻia nā kulekele kūloko o nā kulekele i manaʻo nui ʻia.

Hoʻohui, aia kahi mea kaumaha. ʻOiai ʻo Kina ka mana o ka mākeke pākahi lithium, nā ʻenehana nui a me nā pono o ka lithium iron phosphate a me nā mea ternary ʻaʻole i ka lima o ka poʻe Kina. Inā hoʻohālikelike ʻia me Iapana, nui ka hakahaka o Kina i ka hoʻopukapuka kālā kanaka a me ka waiwai nui i ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka lithium. Hōʻike kēia i ke koʻikoʻi o ka noiʻi ʻepekema maʻamau, kahi e pili ana i ka hoʻomau lōʻihi a me ka hoʻopukapuka ʻana o ka mokuʻāina, nā ʻimi noiʻi ʻepekema a me nā ʻoihana.

I kēia manawa, ke neʻe nei nā paila lithium i ke kolu o ka hanauna ma hope o nā hanauna ʻelua o ka lithium cobalt oxide, lithium iron phosphate a me lithium ternary. E like me ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ʻana o nā ʻenehana mua o nā hanauna ʻelua e nā ʻoihana ʻē, ʻaʻole lawa nā pono nui o Kina, akā hiki paha iā ia ke hoʻololi i ke kūlana i ka hanauna e hiki mai ana ma o ka hoʻonohonoho mua. I ka nānā ʻana i ke ala hoʻomohala ʻoihana o ka noiʻi maʻamau a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana, ka noiʻi noi ʻana a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā huahana o nā pono uila, pono mākou e mākaukau no kahi kaua lōʻihi.

Pono e hoʻomaopopo ʻia ka hoʻomohala ʻana a me ka noi ʻana o nā pākuhi lithium i Kina ke kū nei i mua o nā pilikia. ʻO kahi laʻana, i ka hoʻohana maoli ʻana o nā puʻupuʻu lithium i nā kaʻa ikehu hou, aia nō kekahi mau pilikia, e like me ka haʻahaʻa o ka ikehu haʻahaʻa, hana haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, manawa hoʻouka lōʻihi, ola lawelawe pōkole a pēlā aku.

Mai ka 2019, ua kāpae ʻo Kina i ka "papa inoa keʻokeʻo" o nā paila, a ua hoʻi nā ʻoihana ʻē e like me LG a me Panasonic i ka mākeke Kina, me kahi hōʻeha hoʻonohonoho wikiwiki loa. I ka manawa like, me ka hoʻonui nui ʻana o ke kaomi o ke koina o nā paila lithium, e ikaika nui ana ka hoʻokūkū ma ka mākeke kūloko. E hoʻokau kēia i nā ʻoihana e lanakila i ka hoʻokūkū piha me ka hana ʻoi aku ke kiʻekiʻe o ke kumukūʻai a me ka hiki ke wikiwiki i ka mākeke, i mea e hoʻonui ai i ka hoʻonui a me ka ulu mau ʻana o ka ʻoihana pākahi lithium o Kina.


Ka manawa Post: Mar-16-2021
Ke nānā nei ʻoe i ka ʻike hou aku e pili ana i nā huahana ʻoihana a DET Power a me nā hopena mana? He mākaukau kā mākou pūʻulu e kōkua iā ʻoe i nā manawa āpau. E ʻoluʻolu e hoʻopihapiha i ka palapala a e kāhea koke aku kā mākou ʻelele kūʻai iā ʻoe.